| Effervescent Tablets
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Effervescent Tablets

With the society development,Ther are more and more beverages,traditional tpyes can not satisfy people’s taste, special drinks have attracted the attention of consumers such as solid drinks. China’s solid beverage started latly, but high growth rapid in recent years . Effervescent tablets of solid beverages widely used, its convenient storage and drinking methods, unique flavor, rich flavor, nutrient more comprehensive features, making it meet the modern requirements of one of the beverage products.

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Solid beverages refer to the various raw materials (such as plant extracts, sugar, fruit juice and other ingredients blending), concentrated, dried; or a variety of raw materials crushed, mixed granular, flake or powder,add water before drinking.
Effervescent tablets in recent years, is a new tablet, widely used in foreign market. When pour into water, bubbles (carbon dioxide) are generated in a large amount under the action of an effervescent disintegrant, so that the tablet is rapidly disintegrated and melted, and the carbon dioxide produced when the tablet is disintegrated is partially dissolved in Drinking water, Sometimes the collapse of the bubbles will also make the effervescent tablets in the water roll up and down, so that the collapse and melting acceleration.better taste.
In the 20th century, 70 years, foreign pharmaceutical effervescent tablets have been sold, beginning in agriculture and food industry. Agriculture is mainly herbicide effervescent tablets, the food industry is mainly solid drinks. Currently on the market there are VC effervescent tablets, ginkgo effervescent tablets in the sale of a variety of flavors and varieties of effervescent tablets are constantly being developed. There are already tea (including tea extract and active ingredients), fruits and vegetables, micronutrients such as effervescent tablets for sale.
Effervescent solid beverage has developed rapidly in recent years, mainly due to its traditional liquid beverages compared with the following advantages: ① natural flavor, good quick-dissolving, wide range of applications, easy to drink; ② significantly reduced the quality, volume significantly Easy to carry, moisture content is less than 5%, not only shelf-long, not perishable, and small size, easy to carry and transport. ④ easy to maintain health; ⑤ often added to the effervescent tablets of solid beverages there are many nutrient-rich substances such as vitamins, amino acids, fruit juice, honey, drink the same time the body needs the human body to obtain the rich nutrients, useful In the human body development. Effervescent tablets of solid beverages due to the above advantages and its relatively simple and mature production technology, product sales increased significantly long-term, the market prospect is broader.
First, the effervescent solid beverage processing technology
In this part, the effection of effervescent tablets processing technology, effervescent material, processing equipment, combined with years of application examples, to show the current status of China’s effervescent tablets processing technology.
1, effervescent tablets main material granulation technology
Effervescent tablets commonly used in the preparation of the main wet granulation technology, dry granulation technology, non-water granulation technology, control of granulation water content technology, direct compression technology.

Wet granulation method: acid or alkali respectively with aqueous binder granulation drying, in tablet before mixing evenly for tablet. This method to avoid the acid and alkali contact, to prevent the occurrence of acid-base reaction during the operation, is conducive to the stability of the preparation. Its products have beautiful appearance, good fluidity, strong wear resistance, good compression molding, etc., in the pharmaceutical industry, food industry and other fields the most widely used. But does not apply to heat-sensitive, moisture-sensitive, very soluble and other special materials granulation.Effervescent tablets on the preparation of environmental requirements are higher, especially the use of wet granulation, the relative humidity should not exceed 30%. For example: the preparation of pumpkin cornflakes effervescent tablets, Pu’er tea effervescent tablets prepared by wet granulation process, respectively, granulation drying and sweeteners and other raw materials, mixing, compression made.

Dry Granulation: Granulation is carried out by rolling or pressing. The method requires less auxiliary materials, the process is simple, short cycle, pollution, help to improve particle stability, disintegration and dissolution; but should pay attention to select the good adhesion and compressibility of accessories. This method is used in the test, due to higher prices of equipment, plant applications. For example: the preparation of stevia effervescent tablets, Stevia extract dry granulation of the preparation of traditional Chinese medicine oral preparation, the preparation contains carbonates and organic acids, water can produce gas from the effervescent.

Non-aqueous granulation method: the prescription components with non-aqueous liquid (such as isopropyl alcohol, anhydrous ethanol) granulation. This operation is simpler than wet granulation, but it is easy to have adhesive residue, so also to measure the residual; In addition, the price of non-water binder slightly higher than the wet granulation. For example: the preparation of green tea effervescent tablets, VC effervescent tablets choose non-aqueous granulation, effervescent tablets prepared by this method, effervescent effect, the appearance of integrity, taste good smell.
Control of the water content of the granulation: Generally, an appropriate amount of citric acid-water content is used in place of the anhydrate to control the water content of the granules. When the mixture is heated, the crystal water is released more easily than the granulated water; the wet granules are immediately The tablets are then dried.
Direct compression method: the drug powder and appropriate accessories were sieved and mixed, without the granulation process, directly to the mixture of drugs and excipients for tabletting. This method must have a certain degree of mobility of drugs, preferably a certain crystal form, to select the appropriate accessories, and then the mixture directly tablet, you can omit the granulation step, can save energy, process is simple and less process for hot and humid Unstable drugs; but there are poor fluidity of the powder, tablet weight differences, powder tablets easily lead to lobes and other weaknesses.
Based on the preparation practice of several kinds of effervescent tablets, we found that the wet granulation was helpful to the stability of the preparation in several mainstream granulation processes, but it was not suitable for the special materials such as heat sensitivity, humidity sensitivity and extreme solubility. Granules, the relative humidity should not exceed 30%; dry granulation is generally used for the production of pharmaceutical materials and laboratory operations; green tea effervescent tablets preparation, VC effervescent tablets generally use non-water granulation method, but non-water granulation The price of adhesives is higher; direct compression method for hot and humid instability of drugs, such as blackberry effervescent tablets.

2, effervescent tablets accessories
1) commonly used acid source
Effervescent tablets commonly used acid sources are citric acid, tartaric acid, fumaric acid, malic acid.
Citric acid is a colorless translucent crystal or white powder. It is mainly used as flavoring agent, buffer agent, antioxidant synergist and acid effervescent in food. It is the most widely used effervescent acid source and is suitable for a variety of effervescent tablets, citrus fruits because it is one of the natural ingredients, it is particularly suitable for citrus flavor drinks. Citric acid soluble in water, good taste, but has a strong hygroscopicity, often resulting in sticky red, difficult to dry particles, easy to rise and other issues.
Tartaric acid is a colorless transparent or white fine crystals, compared with citric acid, it has a slightly astringent taste in food with the effect of citric acid is similar to do effervescent and buffer agent. Tartaric acid a great advantage is the hygroscopicity of small, easy to operate.Fumaric acid as a pH regulator and effervescent agent, it has no moisture absorption with tartaric acid, and has a good lubrication, citric acid can solve the process of sticking in the compression and moisture absorption problems.
Malic acid and citric acid and its similar role with citric acid, also has a strong hygroscopicity, easy to stick red.

2) commonly used alkaline source
Commonly used alkaline sources are sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, potassium carbonate, potassium bicarbonate. Alkaline source of the mechanism of action and acid production and reaction of carbon dioxide gas to play the role of expansion, the general is the PVP ethanol solution with acid granulation or crystallization of alkali directly from the tablet.
For the stability of the effervescent tablet to prevent acid and alkali reaction in the production process, sodium bicarbonate can be coated with a protective agent, so that in the solid state does not react with citric acid.

3) Lubricants
Lubricant on the preparation of effervescent tablets plays an important role, such as improper selection can affect product preparation and traits. Commonly used lubricant is polyethylene glycol 6000, generally need to crush 160 mesh after use, the amount of more than 5% of the total weight within the excessive use of sticky red will increase.

4) fillers and adhesives
Commonly used adhesives are PVP ethanol solution, with PVP ethanol solution as a binder, easy to absorb moisture, the use of polyvinyl pyrrolidone and polyvinyl acetate copolymer as binder.

3, effervescent tablets processing equipment
Effervescent tablets of the main raw materials grinding processing, mixing, drying, tabletting and other production processes require special equipment to meet production, so that effervescent tablets qualified quality, production efficiency. Equipment to be set according to the process route, the main production involved in grinding equipment, such as sieve mill; Mixing equipment, such as single oar slot mixer; molding equipment, such as rocking particle molding machine; drying equipment , The general use of superheated steam drying method, dry material hot air boiling method, oven, etc .; in the homogenizer choice, the use of high pressure homogenizer or colloid mill; sugar pot in the protein effervescent tablets to melt All kinds of sugar.
Second, the food industry in the application and related patents
Effervescent tablets in the food industry is widely used. Currently on the market effervescent tablets solid beverage main products are VC effervescent tablets, including a variety of fruit flavor VC effervescent tablets. In addition, trace element supplements effervescent tablets such as iron effervescent tablets are also more common. With the effervescent tablets on the solid beverage research more and more in-depth, more and more varieties of its products. According to the different raw materials of effervescent tablet, we divided the edible effervescent tablets into four categories:

1, tea effervescent tablets
Tea effervescent tablets – effervescent tablets containing tea and its active ingredients in tea, such as tea extract, catechins, tea polyphenols, tea polysaccharides, instant tea and other effervescent tablets. Is to Pu’er tea, honeysuckle tea, green tea and barley black tea effervescent tablets of solid drinks as an example, to understand the production of tea effervescent tablets of the specific process.
1) Pu’er tea effervescent tablets
Pu’er tea effervescent tablets are tea powder, fillers, effervescent, binder grinding 0.11mm sieve, wet ethanol mixed with the material after the granulation with 1.21mm sieve, and then in a vacuum oven 45 ° C for 30 min, and then sieved with a 1.21 mm and a 0.894 mm sieve while discarding portions of 0.894 mm or less and 1.21 mm or more. The obtained granules are weighed, added with lubricant (over 0.11mm sieve) and mixed uniformly, and then the mixture is put into tabletting machine and sealed and preserved to produce effervescent tablets. As a result of acid-base two granulation system of Pu’er tea effervescent tablets prone to flower pieces, but also in water disintegration occurs when there are tea powder agglomeration caused by insoluble small particles, so this study uses a phase of mixed wet granulation.
2) Honeysuckle tea effervescent tablets
The preparation process of honeysuckle tea effervescent tablets is to prepare honeysuckle extract powder, first take 6kg honeysuckle, add water soak twice (each time with 10 times water, extraction 0.5h), combined extraction twice (each time with 10 times water, Extraction 0.5h), the combined extract, 60 ° C vacuum concentration to thick paste, at 60 ° C under the conditions of vacuum drying powder after crushing extract powder 1 257g, according to the preparation of effervescent tablets take the entire tablet weight 40 % Of the honeysuckle extract powder, adding 15% of sodium bicarbonate and citric acid mass ratio of 1.3: 1 disintegrant composition, diluent 32% lactose, mix, with 1% PVP-K30 anhydrous ethanol solution system (1) PEG6000 as a lubricant and 12% PEG6000-coated sodium bicarbonate and citric acid in a mass ratio of 1.3: 1, respectively, and dried at a temperature of (45 ± 5) ° C for 4 hours. Composed of disintegrating agent, that is, non-aqueous granulation of effervescent tablets, the finished product after compression.
3) green tea effervescent tablets
The preparation process of the green tea effervescent tablet is: Matcha 4.0%, protein sugar 3.6%, white sugar 17.8%, citric acid 35.6%, sodium bicarbonate 31.1% and maltodextrin 6.7%. At the same time, adding appropriate amount of suspending agent and 4% to 6% of the powder flavor, binder 1% PVP anhydrous ethanol solution, lubricant 2% to 3% PEG6000 or soluble starch. Granulation process selection acid-base mixed non-water granulation method, prepared by this method of green tea effervescent tablets, effervescent effect, taste sweet and sour,including tea scent.
4) barley black tea effervescent tablets
The preparation process of solid beverage of barley black tea effervescent tablet is as follows: taking instant black tea powder and instant barley flour as main raw materials and aspartame as auxiliary material, using effervescent granulation to make effervescent tablets, taking disintegration time and taste as observation And the ratio of main and auxiliary materials was optimized by single factor test and orthogonal experiment. The optimum formulation of barley black tea effervescent beverage is 2.0% of instant black tea powder, 18.1% of instant barley flour, 36.7% of sodium bicarbonate, 9.2% of aspartame, 1.0%, citric acid 33.0%. The effervescent tablets average disintegration time of 3.6min, soluble in water after the beverage was brown, sweet and sour taste, rich in barley, black tea aroma.
At present, China has applied for a patent tea-containing effervescent tablets are very rich. Such as: tea effervescent tablets and its preparation process, a rapid dissolution of tea and its preparation method, an original oolong tea effervescent tablets and its production methods, bitter buckwheat tea effervescent tablets and its preparation, noon tea effervescent Tablets, a wolfberry chrysanthemum health effervescent tea, green tea extract effervescent agents. The effective use of Chinese tea culture and promotion, more suitable for the Chinese market.
In addition, there are several kinds of tea effervescent tablets of the patent: health effervescent tablets and its preparation method, anti-aging health food effervescent tablets and its preparation method, an anti-oxygen, anti-fatigue tea effervescent tablets and preparation Method, a quick dissolving tea slice and a preparation method thereof.
Most of the tea effervescent tablets are multi-functional effervescent tablets, with anti-fatigue, anti-aging and other health functions. Preparation of tea effervescent tablets generally use non-water granulation and wet granulation method. The non-water granulation method is the most widely used. The preparation method is simple and can retain part of the beneficial substances, which is suitable for the preparation of tea effervescent tablets.

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2, fruit and vegetable effervescent tablets
Fruit and vegetable effervescent tablets is a fruit or vegetable-based material, fruit and vegetable active ingredients from the preparation of effervescent tablets of solid drinks, fruit and vegetable effervescent tablets for a lot of research documents, of which more is about extracting fruits and vegetables beneficial to the human body Of the active ingredient research, such as: pumpkin corn flour effervescent tablets, blueberries effervescent tablets solid drink, fruit plum child health effervescent granules, cold melon effervescent tablets, hawthorn effervescent tablets and so on. Is to melon effervescent tablets, blackberry effervescent tablets, blueberries effervescent tablets and so on one by one its preparation process.
1) cold melon effervescent tablets
The main preparation process comprises the following steps: the filler and the cold melon powder are divided into two parts; the other part is mixed with the sodium hydrogencarbonate to add the binder and the deionized water; Drying, and pulverizing the sieving step. A citric acid mixed with binder and deionized water to make soft material, dry, crushed sieve. Then the proportion of the two powder mixture, adding crushed sifted lubricant blending, tabletting. At the same time the dry crushed dry melon, 80 mesh sieve after the raw materials. Drying temperature was 50 ℃, drying time was 4h, the tablet pressure is less than 20Pa prepared under the conditions of Bitter melon effervescent tablets.
2) blackberry effervescent tablets
The optimum formula of blackberry effervescent tablet is: powder of blackberry powder (48% with maltodextrin) 41%, sodium carbonate 24%, citric acid 35%, aspartame 0.2%. The process for the first crush of other materials, and then sifted, then add the blackberry powder for mixing, the final tablet packaging. The experimental results show that the blackberry effervescent tablet is not deformed and easy to absorb moisture. The disintegration time is 40s, and the sweet and sour sweetness is moderate, and no precipitate appears after disintegration.
3) blueberry effervescent tablets
The blueberry effervescent tablets were prepared by wet granulation (relative humidity should be ≤30%). After repeated experiments, the results showed that blueberry effervescent tablets were the best scientific formula (weight percentage) 15% of the extract, 21% of β-cyclodextrin, 5% of vitamin C, 28% of sodium bicarbonate, 26% of citric acid, 0.1% of magnesium stearate and 5% of sucrose. The effervescent tablet is quickly and uniformly distributed in the water, High bioavailability, the active ingredient is easy to be absorbed, the taste is comfortable, the texture is crisp, the food is convenient, both the solid preparation and the liquid preparation have the broad market prospect in the food industry.
4) other fruit and vegetable effervescent tablets
Pumpkin corn flour effervescent tablets using wet granulation process, acid and alkali granulation drying and sweeteners and raw materials after mixing, compression made. The fruit-plum children health effervescent granule preparation process is as follows: adding the white granulated sugar in the fruit extract and the hawthorn extract, drying, grinding, screening, , After mixing these granules dry, crushed, then add citric acid, sodium bicarbonate and extract mix, over 80 mesh sieve, sterilization, and finally packaged products. Hawthorn effervescent tablet is hawthorn flour obtained by softening, beating, micronizing, homogenizing, enzymolysis and spray drying of hawthorn, cooperating with citric acid, protein sugar, sodium bicarbonate and other raw materials, adopting dry granulation preparation technology .
China has applied for a patent: a pomegranate effervescent tablets and its preparation, Hawthorn jujube effervescent tablets, fruit and vegetable microcapsule effervescent tablets and its manufacturing methods, Gege effervescent tablets, red dates Hawthorn walnut effervescent tablets, Effervescent tablets and its preparation process, fruit and vegetable effervescent tablets and its preparation method, Zao Ren licorice effervescent tablets, Sydney effervescent tablets and its preparation process, kiwi effervescent tablets and technology.
Fruit and vegetable effervescent tablets taken from the fruits and vegetables in daily life, through the in-depth study of raw materials, coupled with mature processing technology and scientific formula, fruit and vegetable effervescent tablets so that the release of nutrients in raw materials has been effectively improved. Fruit and vegetable effervescent tablets are generally prepared by wet granulation; use of fruit and vegetable extract, respectively, and acid-base granulation of raw materials, accessories mixed, pressed into final shape.
3, vitamin effervescent tablets
Vitamin effervescent tablets in recent years has been available at home and abroad, with a single component or a variety of vitamins and different fruity series of products, is a source of vitamin supplements. Which the production process is already very mature, the market most of the effervescent tablets for the VC effervescent tablets, of which there are multi-vitamin effervescent tablets.
Vitamin effervescent tablets generally use non-water granulation method, get good stability, short disintegration time, simple process, the quality of controllable products.
4, trace elements supplements effervescent tablets
Microelement supplements effervescent tablets such as calcium effervescent tablets, citric acid – calcium malate (CCM) effervescent tablets and nutrient effervescent milk tablets. Trace element supplements have many benefits and functions to the human body, for example, to prevent cancer, reduce anxiety and perceived stress response, and reduce the incidence of cataracts. Therefore, trace element supplements more and more people of all ages.
The CCM effervescent tablet was prepared by crushing CCM to a 100-mesh sieve, adding VC, stevioside and baking soda, stirring in a mixer, adding polyvinyl pyrrolidone, mixing 12 mesh Granulation, wet granules in about 50 ℃ under the conditions of ventilation and drying, and through 14 mesh sieve. Then adding PEG6000 for mixing, fully mixing, and putting into tabletting machine to form, drying at 60 DEG C for 2 hours, sterilizing and packaging, and obtaining CCM effervescent tablet.
Third, the development of effervescent tablets solid beverage direction and prospects
Effervescent solid beverage development will focus on the traditional consumption habits of the public to expand the sales of non-traditional solid beverage market. First of all, the promotion of effervescent tablets in China, should make full use of and development of China’s rich advantages of natural resources, and actively develop vegetable protein, fruit and vegetable juice, milk protein, instant tea and other nutritious, functional, special effervescent tablets solid beverage. Combined with China’s rich agricultural resources to the traditional consumer demand and geographical origin of the product features a new type of effervescent tablets as a hot research and development. Second, since the effervescent tablets in the production process in addition to the main agent and effervescent agent, you can also add flavoring agents, sweeteners, coloring agents and excipients, etc., for food, can improve the flavor of food, development Series of flavor of the effervescent food. As the effervescent tablet has a special disintegrating agent – effervescent disintegrating agent, can be quickly disintegrated in cold water, conducive to absorption, easy to carry, color and flavor are superb, that is to drink, especially to meet the young people love the new , Odd, special advantages, in the field of children, adolescents have obvious advantages.

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